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 * Copyright (c) 1993-1994 by Xerox Corporation.  All rights reserved.
 * Permission is hereby granted to use or copy this program
 * for any purpose,  provided the above notices are retained on all copies.
 * Permission to modify the code and to distribute modified code is granted,
 * provided the above notices are retained, and a notice that the code was
 * modified is included with the above copyright notice.
 * Author: Hans-J. Boehm (boehm@parc.xerox.com)
/* Boehm, October 5, 1995 4:20 pm PDT */
 * Cords are immutable character strings.  A number of operations
 * on long cords are much more efficient than their strings.h counterpart.
 * In particular, concatenation takes constant time independent of the length
 * of the arguments.  (Cords are represented as trees, with internal
 * nodes representing concatenation and leaves consisting of either C
 * strings or a functional description of the string.)
 * The following are reasonable applications of cords.  They would perform
 * unacceptably if C strings were used:
 * - A compiler that produces assembly language output by repeatedly
 *   concatenating instructions onto a cord representing the output file.
 * - A text editor that converts the input file to a cord, and then
 *   performs editing operations by producing a new cord representing
 *   the file after echa character change (and keeping the old ones in an
 *   edit history)
 * For optimal performance, cords should be built by
 * concatenating short sections.
 * This interface is designed for maximum compatibility with C strings.
 * ASCII NUL characters may be embedded in cords using CORD_from_fn.
 * This is handled correctly, but CORD_to_char_star will produce a string
 * with embedded NULs when given such a cord. 
 * This interface is fairly big, largely for performance reasons.
 * The most basic constants and functions:
 * CORD - the type of a cord;
 * CORD_EMPTY - empty cord;
 * CORD_len(cord) - length of a cord;
 * CORD_cat(cord1,cord2) - concatenation of two cords;
 * CORD_substr(cord, start, len) - substring (or subcord);
 * CORD_pos i;  CORD_FOR(i, cord) {  ... CORD_pos_fetch(i) ... } -
 *    examine each character in a cord.  CORD_pos_fetch(i) is the char.
 * CORD_fetch(int i) - Retrieve i'th character (slowly).
 * CORD_cmp(cord1, cord2) - compare two cords.
 * CORD_from_file(FILE * f) - turn a read-only file into a cord.
 * CORD_to_char_star(cord) - convert to C string.
 *   (Non-NULL C constant strings are cords.)
 * CORD_printf (etc.) - cord version of printf. Use %r for cords.
# ifndef CORD_H

# define CORD_H
# include <stddef.h>
# include <stdio.h>
/* Cords have type const char *.  This is cheating quite a bit, and not */
/* 100% portable.  But it means that nonempty character string          */
/* constants may be used as cords directly, provided the string is      */
/* never modified in place.  The empty cord is represented by, and      */
/* can be written as, 0.                                    */

typedef const char * CORD;

/* An empty cord is always represented as nil   */
# define CORD_EMPTY 0

/* Is a nonempty cord represented as a C string? */
#define CORD_IS_STRING(s) (*(s) != '\0')

/* Concatenate two cords.  If the arguments are C strings, they may     */
/* not be subsequently altered.                                   */

/* Concatenate a cord and a C string with known length.  Except for the */
/* empty string case, this is a special case of CORD_cat.  Since the    */
/* length is known, it can be faster.                             */
/* The string y is shared with the resulting CORD.  Hence it should     */
/* not be altered by the caller.                            */
/* PAF@design.ru: 
      but there is a ~bug in case (0, "123", 2), it returns "123", and later appends after '3', not '2'.
      and changing 'leny' convention: now, if it's 0, then function does leny=strlen(y)
CORD CORD_cat_char_star(CORD x, const char * y, size_t leny);

/* Compute the length of a cord */
size_t CORD_len(CORD x);

/* Cords may be represented by functions defining the ith character */
typedef char (* CORD_fn)(size_t i, void * client_data);

/* Turn a functional description into a cord.   */
CORD CORD_from_fn(CORD_fn fn, void * client_data, size_t len);

/* Turn a functional description into a cord, only conjunction&func.    */
CORD CORD_from_fn_gen(CORD_fn fn, void * client_data, size_t len);

/* Return the substring (subcord really) of x with length at most n,    */
/* starting at position i.  (The initial character has position 0.)     */
CORD CORD_substr(CORD x, size_t i, size_t n);

/* Return the argument, but rebalanced to allow more efficient    */
/* character retrieval, substring operations, and comparisons.          */
/* This is useful only for cords that were built using repeated   */
/* concatenation.  Guarantees log time access to the result, unless     */
/* x was obtained through a large number of repeated substring ops      */
/* or the embedded functional descriptions take longer to evaluate.     */
/* May reallocate significant parts of the cord.  The argument is not   */
/* modified; only the result is balanced.                   */
CORD CORD_balance(CORD x);

/* The following traverse a cord by applying a function to each   */
/* character.  This is occasionally appropriate, especially where */
/* speed is crucial.  But, since C doesn't have nested functions, */
/* clients of this sort of traversal are clumsy to write.  Consider     */
/* the functions that operate on cord positions instead.          */

/* Function to iteratively apply to individual characters in cord.      */
typedef int (* CORD_iter_fn)(char c, void * client_data);

/* Function to iteratively apply to individual block in cord.     */
typedef int (* CORD_block_iter_fn)(char c, size_t len, void* client_data);

/* Function to apply to substrings of a cord.  Each substring is a      */
/* a C character string, not a general cord.                      */
typedef int (* CORD_batched_iter_fn)(const char * s, void * client_data);
# define CORD_NO_FN ((CORD_batched_iter_fn)0)

/* Apply f1 to each character in the cord, in ascending order,          */
/* starting at position i. If                               */
/* f2 is not CORD_NO_FN, then multiple calls to f1 may be replaced by   */
/* a single call to f2.  The parameter f2 is provided only to allow     */
/* some optimization by the client.  This terminates when the right     */
/* end of this string is reached, or when f1 or f2 return != 0.  In the */
/* latter case CORD_iter returns != 0.  Otherwise it returns 0.         */
/* The specified value of i must be < CORD_len(x).                */
int CORD_iter5(CORD x, size_t i, CORD_iter_fn f1,
             CORD_batched_iter_fn f2, void * client_data);

/* iterate over function block in cord */
int CORD_block_iter(CORD x, size_t i, CORD_block_iter_fn f1, void * client_data);

/* A simpler version that starts at 0, and without f2:      */
int CORD_iter(CORD x, CORD_iter_fn f1, void * client_data);
# define CORD_iter(x, f1, cd) CORD_iter5(x, 0, f1, CORD_NO_FN, cd)

/* Similar to CORD_iter5, but end-to-beginning. No provisions for */
/* CORD_batched_iter_fn.                                    */
int CORD_riter4(CORD x, size_t i, CORD_iter_fn f1, void * client_data);

/* A simpler version that starts at the end:    */
int CORD_riter(CORD x, CORD_iter_fn f1, void * client_data);

/* Functions that operate on cord positions.  The easy way to traverse  */
/* cords.  A cord position is logically a pair consisting of a cord     */
/* and an index into that cord.  But it is much faster to retrieve a    */
/* charcter based on a position than on an index.  Unfortunately, */
/* positions are big (order of a few 100 bytes), so allocate them with  */
/* caution.                                           */
/* Things in cord_pos.h should be treated as opaque, except as          */
/* described below.  Also note that                         */
/* CORD_pos_fetch, CORD_next and CORD_prev have both macro and function */
/* definitions.  The former may evaluate their argument more than once. */
# include "private/cord_pos.h"

      Visible definitions from above:
      typedef <OPAQUE but fairly big> CORD_pos[1];
      * Extract the cord from a position:
      CORD CORD_pos_to_cord(CORD_pos p);
      * Extract the current index from a position:
      size_t CORD_pos_to_index(CORD_pos p);
      * Fetch the character located at the given position:
      char CORD_pos_fetch(CORD_pos p);
      * Initialize the position to refer to the given cord and index.
      * Note that this is the most expensive function on positions:
      void CORD_set_pos(CORD_pos p, CORD x, size_t i);
      * Advance the position to the next character.
      * P must be initialized and valid.
      * Invalidates p if past end:
      void CORD_next(CORD_pos p);
      * Move the position to the preceding character.
      * P must be initialized and valid.
      * Invalidates p if past beginning:
      void CORD_prev(CORD_pos p);
      * Is the position valid, i.e. inside the cord?
      int CORD_pos_valid(CORD_pos p);
# define CORD_FOR(pos, cord) \
    for (CORD_set_pos(pos, cord, 0); CORD_pos_valid(pos); CORD_next(pos))

/* An out of memory handler to call.  May be supplied by client.  */
/* Must not return.                                         */
extern void (* CORD_oom_fn)(void);

/* Dump the representation of x to stdout in an implementation defined  */
/* manner.  Intended for debugging only.                    */
void CORD_dump(CORD x);

/* The following could easily be implemented by the client.  They are   */
/* provided in cordxtra.c for convenience.                        */

/* Concatenate a character to the end of a cord.      */
CORD CORD_cat_char(CORD x, char c);
/* Concatenate n cords. */
CORD CORD_catn(int n, /* CORD */ ...);

/* Return the character in CORD_substr(x, i, 1)       */
char CORD_fetch(CORD x, size_t i);

/* Return < 0, 0, or > 0, depending on whether x < y, x = y, x > y      */
int CORD_cmp(CORD x, CORD y);

/* A generalization that takes both starting positions for the          */
/* comparison, and a limit on the number of characters to be compared.  */
int CORD_ncmp(CORD x, size_t x_start, CORD y, size_t y_start, size_t len);

/* Find the first occurrence of s in x at position start or later.      */
/* Return the position of the first character of s in x, or       */
/* CORD_NOT_FOUND if there is none.                         */
size_t CORD_str(CORD x, size_t start, CORD s);

/* Return a cord consisting of i copies of (possibly NUL) c.  Dangerous */
/* in conjunction with CORD_to_char_star.                   */
/* The resulting representation takes constant space, independent of i. */
CORD CORD_chars(char c, size_t i);
# define CORD_nul(i) CORD_chars('\0', (i))

/* Turn a file into cord.  The file must be seekable.  Its contents     */
/* must remain constant.  The file may be accessed as an immediate      */
/* result of this call and/or as a result of subsequent accesses to     */
/* the cord.  Short files are likely to be immediately read, but  */
/* long files are likely to be read on demand, possibly relying on      */
/* stdio for buffering.                                     */
/* We must have exclusive access to the descriptor f, i.e. we may */
/* read it at any time, and expect the file pointer to be         */
/* where we left it.  Normally this should be invoked as          */
/* CORD_from_file(fopen(...))                               */
/* CORD_from_file arranges to close the file descriptor when it is no   */
/* longer needed (e.g. when the result becomes inaccessible).           */ 
/* The file f must be such that ftell reflects the actual character     */
/* position in the file, i.e. the number of characters that can be      */
/* or were read with fread.  On UNIX systems this is always true.  On   */
/* MS Windows systems, f must be opened in binary mode.                 */
CORD CORD_from_file(FILE * f);

/* Equivalent to the above, except that the entire file will be read    */
/* and the file pointer will be closed immediately.               */
/* The binary mode restriction from above does not apply.         */
CORD CORD_from_file_eager(FILE * f);

/* Equivalent to the above, except that the file will be read on demand.*/
/* The binary mode restriction applies.                           */
CORD CORD_from_file_lazy(FILE * f);

/* Turn a cord into a C string.     The result shares no structure with */
/* x, and is thus modifiable.                               */
char * CORD_to_char_star(CORD x);

/* Turn a C string into a CORD.  The C string is copied, and so may     */
/* subsequently be modified.                                */
CORD CORD_from_char_star(const char *s);

/* Identical to the above, but the result may share structure with      */
/* the argument and is thus not modifiable.                       */
const char * CORD_to_const_char_star(CORD x); 

/* Write a cord to a file, starting at the current position.  No  */
/* trailing NULs are newlines are added.                    */
/* Returns EOF if a write error occurs, 1 otherwise.              */
int CORD_put(CORD x, FILE * f);

/* "Not found" result for the following two functions.                  */
# define CORD_NOT_FOUND ((size_t)(-1))

/* A vague analog of strchr.  Returns the position (an integer, not     */
/* a pointer) of the first occurrence of (char) c inside x at position  */
/* i or later. The value i must be < CORD_len(x).                 */
size_t CORD_chr(CORD x, size_t i, int c);

/* A vague analog of strrchr.  Returns index of the last occurrence     */
/* of (char) c inside x at position i or earlier. The value i           */
/* must be < CORD_len(x).                                   */
size_t CORD_rchr(CORD x, size_t i, int c);

/* The following are also not primitive, but are implemented in   */
/* cordprnt.c.  They provide functionality similar to the ANSI C  */
/* functions with corresponding names, but with the following           */
/* additions and changes:                                   */
/* 1. A %r conversion specification specifies a CORD argument.  Field   */
/*    width, precision, etc. have the same semantics as for %s.         */
/*    (Note that %c,%C, and %S were already taken.)               */
/* 2. The format string is represented as a CORD.                   */
/* 3. CORD_sprintf and CORD_vsprintf assign the result through the 1st  */    /*    argument.   Unlike their ANSI C versions, there is no need to guess     */
/*    the correct buffer size.                                    */
/* 4. Most of the conversions are implement through the native          */
/*    vsprintf.  Hence they are usually no faster, and                  */
/*    idiosyncracies of the native printf are preserved.  However,      */
/*    CORD arguments to CORD_sprintf and CORD_vsprintf are NOT copied;  */
/*    the result shares the original structure.  This may make them     */
/*    very efficient in some unusual applications.                */
/*    The format string is copied.                          */
/* All functions return the number of characters generated or -1 on     */
/* error.  This complies with the ANSI standard, but is inconsistent    */
/* with some older implementations of sprintf.                    */

/* The implementation of these is probably less portable than the rest  */
/* of this package.                                         */

#ifndef CORD_NO_IO

#include <stdarg.h>

int CORD_sprintf(CORD * out, CORD format, ...);
int CORD_vsprintf(CORD * out, CORD format, va_list args);
int CORD_fprintf(FILE * f, CORD format, ...);
int CORD_vfprintf(FILE * f, CORD format, va_list args);
int CORD_printf(CORD format, ...);
int CORD_vprintf(CORD format, va_list args);

#endif /* CORD_NO_IO */

# endif /* CORD_H */

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