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pa_string.C

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/** @file
      Parser: string class. @see untalength_t.C.

      Copyright (c) 2001-2005 ArtLebedev Group (http://www.artlebedev.com)
      Author: Alexandr Petrosian <paf@design.ru> (http://paf.design.ru)
*/

static const char * const IDENT_STRING_C="$Date: 2008-09-03 15:15:47 $";

#include "pa_string.h"
#include "pa_exception.h"
#include "pa_table.h"
#include "pa_dictionary.h"
#include "pa_charset.h"

#include "pcre.h"

const String String::Empty;

int pa_atoi(const char* str, const String* problem_source) {
      if(!str)
            return 0;

      while(*str && isspace((unsigned char)*str))
            str++;
      if(!*str)
            return 0;

      int result;
      char *error_pos;
      bool negative=false;
      if(str[0]=='-') {
            negative=true;
            str++;
      } else if(str[0]=='+') {
            str++;
      }
      // 0xABC
      if(str[0]=='0')
            if(str[1]=='x' || str[1]=='X')
                  result=(int)(unsigned long)strtol(str, &error_pos, 0);
            else {
                   // skip leading 0000, to disable octal interpretation
                  do str++; while(*str=='0');                     
                  result=(int)strtol(str, &error_pos, 0);
            }
      else
            result=(int)strtol(str, &error_pos, 0);
      if(negative)
            result=-result;

      while(char c=*error_pos++)
            if(!isspace((unsigned char)c))
                  throw Exception("number.format",
                        problem_source,
                        problem_source?"invalid number (int)": "'%s' is invalid number (int)", str);

      return result;
}

double pa_atod(const char* str, const String* problem_source) {
      if(!str)
            return 0;

      while(*str && isspace((unsigned char)*str))
            str++;
      if(!*str)
            return 0;

      double result;
      char *error_pos;
      bool negative=false;
      if(str[0]=='-') {
            negative=true;
            str++;
      } else if(str[0]=='+') {
            str++;
      }
      // 0xABC
      if(str[0]=='0')
            if(str[1]=='x' || str[1]=='X')
                  result=(double)(unsigned long)strtol(str, &error_pos, 0);
            else {
                   // skip leading 0000, to disable octal interpretation
                  do str++; while(*str=='0');                     
                  result=(double)strtod(str, &error_pos);
            }
      else
            result=(double)strtod(str, &error_pos);
      if(negative)
            result=-result;

      while(char c=*error_pos++)
            if(!isspace((unsigned char)c))
                  throw Exception("number.format",
                        problem_source,
                        problem_source?"invalid number (double)": "'%s' is invalid number (double)", str);

      return result;
}

// cord lib extension

#ifndef DOXYGEN
typedef struct {
    ssize_t countdown;
    int target;   /* Character we're looking for      */
} chr_data;
#endif
static int CORD_range_contains_chr_greater_then_proc(char c, size_t size, void* client_data)
{
    register chr_data * d = (chr_data *)client_data;
    
    if (d -> countdown<=0) return(2);
    d -> countdown -= size;
    if (c > d -> target) return(1);
    return(0);
}
int CORD_range_contains_chr_greater_then(CORD x, size_t i, size_t n, int c)
{
    chr_data d;

    d.countdown = n;
    d.target = c;
    return(CORD_block_iter(x, i, CORD_range_contains_chr_greater_then_proc, &d) == 1/*alternatives: 0 normally ended, 2=struck 'n'*/);
}

static int CORD_block_count_proc(char /*c*/, size_t /*size*/, void* client_data)
{
    int* result=(int*)client_data;
    (*result)++;
    return(0); // 0=continue
}
size_t CORD_block_count(CORD x)
{
      size_t result=0;
      CORD_block_iter(x, 0, CORD_block_count_proc, &result);
    return result;
}

// helpers

/// String::match uses this as replace & global search table columns

00145 const int MAX_MATCH_GROUPS=100;

class String_match_table_template_columns: public ArrayString {
public:
      String_match_table_template_columns() {
            *this+=new String("prematch");
            *this+=new String("match");
            *this+=new String("postmatch");
            for(int i=0; i<MAX_MATCH_GROUPS; i++) {
                  *this+=new String(String::Body::Format(1+i), String::L_CLEAN);
            }
      }
};

Table string_match_table_template(new String_match_table_template_columns);

// String::Body methods

String::Body String::Body::Format(int value) {
      char local[MAX_NUMBER];
      size_t length=snprintf(local, MAX_NUMBER, "%d", value);
      return String::Body(pa_strdup(local, length), length);
}

String::Body String::Body::trim(String::Trim_kind kind, const char* chars, 
                                                size_t* out_start, size_t* out_length) const {
      size_t our_length=length();
      if(!our_length)
            return *this;
      if(!chars)
            chars=" \t\n"; // white space

      size_t start=0;
      size_t end=our_length;
      // from left...
      if(kind!=TRIM_END) {
            CORD_pos pos; set_pos(pos, 0);
            while(true) {
                  char c=CORD_pos_fetch(pos);
                  if(strchr(chars, c)) {
                        if(++start==our_length)
                              return 0; // all chars are empty, just return empty string
                  } else
                        break;                  

                  CORD_next(pos);
            }
      }
      // from right..
      if(kind!=TRIM_START) {
            CORD_pos pos; set_pos(pos, end-1);
            while(true) {
                  char c=CORD_pos_fetch(pos);
                  if(strchr(chars, c)) {
                        if(--end==0) // optimization: NO need to check for 'end>=start', that's(<) impossible
                              return 0; // all chars are empty, just return empty string
                  } else
                        break;                  

                  CORD_prev(pos);
            }
      }

      if(start==0 && end==our_length) // nobody moved a thing
            return *this;

      if(out_start)
            *out_start=start;
      size_t new_length=end-start;
      if(out_length)
            *out_length=new_length;

      return mid(start, new_length);
}

static int CORD_batched_iter_fn_generic_hash_code(char c, void * client_data) {
      uint& result=*static_cast<uint*>(client_data);
      generic_hash_code(result, c);
      return 0;
}
static int CORD_batched_iter_fn_generic_hash_code(const char*  s, void * client_data) {
      uint& result=*static_cast<uint*>(client_data);
      generic_hash_code(result, s);
      return 0;
};
uint String::Body::hash_code() const {
      uint result=0;
      CORD_iter5(body, 0,
            CORD_batched_iter_fn_generic_hash_code, 
            CORD_batched_iter_fn_generic_hash_code, &result);
      return result;
}

// String methods

String::String(const char* cstr, size_t helper_length, bool tainted): body(CORD_EMPTY) {
      append_help_length(cstr, helper_length, tainted?L_TAINTED:L_CLEAN);
}
String::String(const String::C cstr, bool tainted): body(CORD_EMPTY) {
      append_know_length(cstr.str, cstr.length, tainted?L_TAINTED:L_CLEAN);
}

00247 String& String::append_know_length(const char* str, size_t known_length, Language lang) {
      if(!known_length)
            return *this;

      // first: langs
      langs.append(body, lang, known_length);
      // next: letters themselves
      body.append_know_length(str, known_length);

      ASSERT_STRING_INVARIANT(*this);
      return *this;
}
00259 String& String::append_help_length(const char* str, size_t helper_length, Language lang) {
      if(!str)
            return *this;
      size_t known_length=helper_length?helper_length:strlen(str);
      if(!known_length)
            return *this;

      return append_know_length(str, known_length, lang);
}
String& String::append_strdup(const char* str, size_t helper_length, Language lang) {
      size_t known_length=helper_length?helper_length:strlen(str);
      if(!known_length)
            return *this;

      // first: langs
      langs.append(body, lang, known_length);
      // next: letters themselves
      body.append_strdup_know_length(str, known_length);

      ASSERT_STRING_INVARIANT(*this);
      return *this;
}

size_t String::length(Charset& charset) const {
      if(charset.isUTF8()){
            const XMLByte* srcPtr=(const XMLByte*)cstrm();
            return lengthUTF8(srcPtr, srcPtr+body.length());
      } else
            return body.length();
}

/// @todo check in doc: whether it documents NOW bad situation "abc".mid(-1, 3) =were?="ab"
00291 String& String::mid(size_t substr_begin, size_t substr_end) const {
      String& result=*new String;

      size_t self_length=length();
      substr_begin=min(substr_begin, self_length);
      substr_end=min(max(substr_end, substr_begin), self_length);
      size_t substr_length=substr_end-substr_begin;
      if(!substr_length)
            return result;

      // first: their langs
      result.langs.append(result.body, langs, substr_begin, substr_length);
      // next: letters themselves
      result.body=body.mid(substr_begin, substr_length);

      ASSERT_STRING_INVARIANT(result);
      return result;
}

// from, to and helper_length in characters, not in bytes (it's important for utf-8)
String& String::mid(Charset& charset, size_t from, size_t to, size_t helper_length) const {
      String& result=*new String;

      size_t self_length=(helper_length)?helper_length:length(charset);

      if(!self_length)
            return result;

      from=min(min(to, from), self_length);
      to=min(max(to, from), self_length);

      size_t substr_length=to-from;

      if(!substr_length)
            return result;

      if(charset.isUTF8()){
            const XMLByte* srcPtr=(const XMLByte*)cstrm();
            const XMLByte* srcEnd=srcPtr+body.length();

            // convert 'from' and 'substr_length' from 'characters' to 'bytes'
            from=getUTF8BytePos(srcPtr, srcEnd, from);
            substr_length=getUTF8BytePos(srcPtr+from, srcEnd, substr_length);
            if(!substr_length)
                  return result;
      }

      // first: their langs
      result.langs.append(result.body, langs, from, substr_length);
      // next: letters themselves
      result.body=body.mid(from, substr_length);

      ASSERT_STRING_INVARIANT(result);
      return result;
}

00347 size_t String::pos(const String::Body substr, size_t this_offset, Language lang) const {
      size_t substr_length=substr.length();
      while(true) {
            size_t substr_begin=body.pos(substr, this_offset);
            
            if(substr_begin==CORD_NOT_FOUND)
                  return STRING_NOT_FOUND;

            if(langs.check_lang(lang, substr_begin, substr_length))
                  return substr_begin;

            this_offset=substr_begin+substr_length;
      }
}

00362 size_t String::pos(const String& substr, 
                        size_t this_offset, Language lang) const {
      return pos(substr.body, this_offset, lang);
}

size_t String::pos(Charset& charset, const String& substr, 
                        size_t this_offset, Language lang) const {

      size_t result;
      if(charset.isUTF8()){
            const XMLByte* srcPtr=(const XMLByte*)cstrm();
            const XMLByte* srcEnd=srcPtr+body.length();

            // convert 'this_offset' from 'characters' to 'bytes'
            this_offset=getUTF8BytePos(srcPtr, srcEnd, this_offset);

            result=pos(substr.body, this_offset, lang);
            if(result==CORD_NOT_FOUND)
                  return STRING_NOT_FOUND;

            // convert 'result' from 'bytes' to 'characters'
            result=getUTF8CharPos(srcPtr, srcEnd, result);
      } else {
            result=pos(substr.body, this_offset, lang);
            if(result==CORD_NOT_FOUND)
                  return STRING_NOT_FOUND;
      }

      return result;
}

void String::split(ArrayString& result, 
               size_t& pos_after, 
               const char* delim, 
               Language lang, int limit) const {
      size_t self_length=length();
      if(size_t delim_length=strlen(delim)) {
            size_t pos_before;
            // while we have 'delim'...
            for(; (pos_before=pos(delim, pos_after, lang))!=STRING_NOT_FOUND && limit; limit--) {
                  result+=&mid(pos_after, pos_before);
                  pos_after=pos_before+delim_length;
            }
            // last piece
            if(pos_after<self_length && limit) {
                  result+=&mid(pos_after, self_length);
                  pos_after=self_length;
            }
      } else { // empty delim
            result+=this;
            pos_after+=self_length;
      }
}

void String::split(ArrayString& result, 
               size_t& pos_after, 
               const String& delim, Language lang, 
               int limit) const {
      if(!delim.is_empty()) {
            size_t pos_before;
            // while we have 'delim'...
            for(; (pos_before=pos(delim, pos_after, lang))!=STRING_NOT_FOUND && limit; limit--) {
                  result+=&mid(pos_after, pos_before);
                  pos_after=pos_before+delim.length();
            }
            // last piece
            if(pos_after<length() && limit) {
                  result+=&mid(pos_after, length());
                  pos_after=length();
            }
      } else { // empty delim
            result+=this;
            pos_after+=length();
      }
}

enum Match_feature {
      MF_NEED_PRE_POST_MATCH = 0x01,
      MF_JUST_COUNT_MATCHES = 0x02
};

static void regex_options(const String* options, int* result, int* match_features){
    struct Regex_option {
            const char* key;
            const char* keyAlt;
            int clear;
            int set;
            int *result;
            int flag;
    } regex_option[]={
            {"i", "I", 0, PCRE_CASELESS, result, 0}, // a=A
            {"s", "S", 0, PCRE_DOTALL, result, 0}, // ^\n\n$ [default]
            {"m", "M", PCRE_DOTALL, PCRE_MULTILINE, result, 0}, // ^aaa\n$^bbb\n$
            {"x", 0, 0, PCRE_EXTENDED, result, 0}, // whitespace in regex ignored
            {"U", 0, 0, PCRE_UNGREEDY, result, 0}, // ungreedy patterns (greedy by default)
            {"g", "G", 0, 1, result+1, 0}, // many rows
            {"'", 0, 0, 0, 0, MF_NEED_PRE_POST_MATCH},
            {"n", 0, 0, 0, 0, MF_JUST_COUNT_MATCHES},
            {0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 0}
    };
      result[0]=PCRE_EXTRA | PCRE_DOTALL | PCRE_DOLLAR_ENDONLY;
      result[1]=0;

    if(options && !options->is_empty()) 
            for(Regex_option *o=regex_option; o->key; o++) 
                  if(
                        options->pos(o->key)!=STRING_NOT_FOUND
                        || (o->keyAlt && options->pos(o->keyAlt)!=STRING_NOT_FOUND)
                  ){
                        if(o->flag){
                              (*match_features) |= o->flag;
                        } else {
                              *o->result &= ~o->clear;
                              *o->result |= o->set;
                        }
                  }
}

00480 Table* String::match(Charset& source_charset,
                 const String& regexp, 
                 const String* options,
                 Row_action row_action, void *info,
                 int& matches_count) const { 
      if(regexp.is_empty())
            throw Exception(PARSER_RUNTIME,
                  0,
                  "regexp is empty");

      const char* pattern=regexp.cstr(String::L_UNSPECIFIED); // fix any tainted with L_REGEX
      const char* errptr;
      int erroffset;
      int option_bits[2]={0};
      int match_features=0;
      regex_options(options, option_bits, &match_features);
      bool need_pre_post_match=(match_features & MF_NEED_PRE_POST_MATCH) != 0;
      bool just_count_matches=(match_features & MF_JUST_COUNT_MATCHES) != 0;
      bool global=option_bits[1]!=0;

      if(source_charset.isUTF8())
            option_bits[0]=option_bits[0] | PCRE_UTF8;

      pcre *code=pcre_compile(pattern, option_bits[0], 
            &errptr, &erroffset,
            source_charset.pcre_tables);

      if(!code)
            throw Exception(PCRE_EXCEPTION_TYPE,
                  &regexp.mid(erroffset, regexp.length()),
                  "regular expression syntax error - %s", errptr);
      
      int subpatterns=pcre_info(code, 0, 0);
      if(subpatterns<0) {
            pcre_free(code);
            throw Exception(PCRE_EXCEPTION_TYPE,
                  &regexp,
                  "pcre_info error (%d)", 
                        subpatterns);
      }

      const char* subject=cstr();
      size_t subject_length=strlen(subject);
      const int oveclength=(1/*match*/+MAX_MATCH_GROUPS)*3;
      int ovector[oveclength];

      // create table
      Table::Action_options table_options;
      Table& table=*new Table(string_match_table_template, table_options);

      int exec_option_bits=0;
      int prestart=0;
      int poststart=0;
      int postfinish=length();
      while(true) {
            int exec_substrings=pcre_exec(code, 0,
                  subject, subject_length, prestart,
                  exec_option_bits, ovector, oveclength);
            
            if(exec_substrings==PCRE_ERROR_NOMATCH) {
                  pcre_free(code);
                  row_action(table, 0/*last time, no raw*/, 0, 0, poststart, postfinish, info);
                  // if(global || subpatterns)
                  //    return &table; // global or with subpatterns=true+result
                  // else {
                  //    just_matched=false; return 0; // not global=no result
                  // }
                  return just_count_matches ? 0 : &table;
            }

            if(exec_substrings<0) {
                  pcre_free(code);
                  throw Exception(PCRE_EXCEPTION_TYPE,
                        &regexp,
                        print_pcre_exec_error_text(exec_substrings),
                              exec_substrings);
            }

            int prefinish=ovector[0];
            poststart=ovector[1];
            ArrayString* row=new ArrayString;
            if(need_pre_post_match) {
                  *row+=&mid(0, prefinish); // .prematch column value
                  *row+=&mid(prefinish, poststart); // .match
                  *row+=&mid(poststart, postfinish); // .postmatch
            } else {
                  *row+=&Empty; // .prematch column value
                  *row+=&Empty; // .match
                  *row+=&Empty; // .postmatch
            }
            
            for(int i=1; i<exec_substrings; i++) {
                  // -1:-1 case handled peacefully by mid() itself
                  *row+=&mid(ovector[i*2+0], ovector[i*2+1]); // .i column value
            }
            
            matches_count++;
            row_action(table, row, prestart, prefinish, poststart, postfinish, info);

            if(!global || prestart==poststart) { // not global | going to hang
                  pcre_free(code);
                  row_action(table, 0/*last time, no row*/, 0, 0, poststart, postfinish, info);
                  return just_count_matches ? 0 : &table;
                  // return &table;
            }
            prestart=poststart;

/*
            if(option_bits[0] & PCRE_MULTILINE)
                  exec_option_bits|=PCRE_NOTBOL; // start of subject+startoffset not BOL
*/
      }
}

String& String::change_case(Charset& source_charset, Change_case_kind kind) const {
      String& result=*new String();
      if(is_empty())
            return result;

      char* new_cstr=cstrm();

      if(source_charset.isUTF8()) {
            size_t new_cstr_len=length();
            switch(kind) {
            case CC_UPPER:
                  change_case_UTF8((const XMLByte*)new_cstr, new_cstr_len, (XMLByte*)new_cstr, new_cstr_len, UTF8CaseToUpper);
                  break;
            case CC_LOWER:
                  change_case_UTF8((const XMLByte*)new_cstr, new_cstr_len, (XMLByte*)new_cstr, new_cstr_len, UTF8CaseToLower);
                  break;
            default:
                  assert(!"unknown change case kind");
                  break; // never
            }     
            
      } else {
            const unsigned char *tables=source_charset.pcre_tables;

            const unsigned char *a;
            const unsigned char *b;
            switch(kind) {
            case CC_UPPER:
                  a=tables+lcc_offset;
                  b=tables+fcc_offset;
                  break;
            case CC_LOWER:
                  a=tables+lcc_offset;
                  b=0;
                  break;
            default:
                  assert(!"unknown change case kind");
                  a=b=0; // calm, compiler
                  break; // never
            }     

            char *dest=new_cstr;
            unsigned char index;
            for(const char* current=new_cstr; (index=(unsigned char)*current); current++) {
                  unsigned char c=a[index];
                  if(b)
                        c=b[c];

                  *dest++=(char)c;
            }
      }
      result.langs=langs;
      result.body=new_cstr;

      return result;
}

const String& String::escape(Charset& source_charset) const {
      if(is_empty())
            return *this;

      return Charset::escape(*this, source_charset);
}

const String& String::replace(const Dictionary& dict) const {
      String& result=*new String();
      const char* old_cstr=cstr();
      const char* prematch_begin=old_cstr;

      const char* current=old_cstr;
      while(*current) {
            if(Dictionary::Subst subst=dict.first_that_begins(current)) {
                  // prematch
                  if(size_t prematch_length=current-prematch_begin) {
                        result.langs.append(result.body, langs, prematch_begin-old_cstr, prematch_length);
                        result.body.append_strdup_know_length(prematch_begin, prematch_length);
                  }

                  // match
                  // skip 'a' in 'current'; move prematch_begin
                  current+=subst.from_length; prematch_begin=current;

                  if(const String* b=subst.to) // are there any b?
                        result<<*b;
            } else // simply advance
                  current++; 
      }

      // postmatch
      if(size_t postmatch_length=current-prematch_begin) {
            result.langs.append(result.body, langs, prematch_begin-old_cstr, postmatch_length);
            result.body.append_strdup_know_length(prematch_begin, postmatch_length);
      }

      ASSERT_STRING_INVARIANT(result);
      return result;
}

static int serialize_body_char(char c, char** cur) {
      *((*cur)++)=c;
      return 0; // 0=continue
};
static int serialize_body_piece(const char* s, char** cur) {
      size_t length=strlen(s);
      memcpy(*cur, s, length);  *cur+=length;
      return 0; // 0=continue
};
static int serialize_lang_piece(char alang, size_t asize, char** cur) {
      // lang
      **cur=alang; (*cur)++;
      // length [WARNING: not cast, addresses must be %4=0 on sparc]
      memcpy(*cur, &asize, sizeof(asize));  *cur+=sizeof(asize);

      return 0; // 0=continue
}
00709 String::Cm String::serialize(size_t prolog_length) const {
      size_t fragments_count=langs.count();
      size_t body_length=body.length();
      size_t buf_length=
            prolog_length //1
            +sizeof(size_t) //2
            +body_length //3
            +1 // 4 for zero terminator used in deserialize
            +sizeof(size_t) //5
            +fragments_count*(sizeof(char)+sizeof(size_t)); //6

      String::Cm result(new(PointerFreeGC) char[buf_length], buf_length);

      // 1: prolog
      char *cur=result.str+prolog_length;
      // 2: chars.count [WARNING: not cast, addresses must be %4=0 on sparc]
      memcpy(cur, &body_length, sizeof(body_length));  cur+=sizeof(body_length);
      // 3: letters
      body.for_each(serialize_body_char, serialize_body_piece, &cur);
      // 4: zero terminator
      *cur++=0;
      // 5: langs.count [WARNING: not cast, addresses must be %4=0 on sparc]
      memcpy(cur, &fragments_count, sizeof(fragments_count));  cur+=sizeof(fragments_count);
      // 6: lang info
      langs.for_each(body, serialize_lang_piece, &cur);

      return result;
}
00737 bool String::deserialize(size_t prolog_size, void *buf, size_t buf_size) {
      size_t in_buf=buf_size;
      if(in_buf<=prolog_size)
            return false;
      in_buf-=prolog_size;

      // 1: prolog
      const char* cur=(const char* )buf+prolog_size;

      // 2: chars.count
      size_t body_length;
      if(in_buf<sizeof(body_length)) // body.length don't fit?
            return false;
      // [WARNING: not cast, addresses must be %4=0 on sparc]
      memcpy(&body_length, cur, sizeof(body_length));  cur+=sizeof(body_length);
      in_buf-=sizeof(body_length);

      if(in_buf<body_length+1) // letters+terminator don't fit?
            return false;
      // 4: zero terminator
      if(cur[body_length] != 0) // in place?
            return false;
      // 3: letters
      body=String::Body(cur, body_length);  
      cur+=body_length+1;
      in_buf-=body_length+1;

      // 5: langs.count
      size_t fragments_count;
      if(in_buf<sizeof(fragments_count)) // langs.count don't fit?
            return false;
      // [WARNING: not cast, addresses must be %4=0 on sparc]
      memcpy(&fragments_count, cur, sizeof(fragments_count));  cur+=sizeof(fragments_count);
      in_buf-=sizeof(fragments_count);
      
      if(fragments_count) {
            // 6: lang info
            size_t total_length=0;
            for(size_t f=0; f<fragments_count; f++) {
                  char lang;
                  size_t fragment_length;
                  size_t piece_length=sizeof(lang)+sizeof(fragment_length);
                  if(in_buf<piece_length) // lang+length
                        return false;

                  // lang
                  lang=*cur++;
                  // length [WARNING: not cast, addresses must be %4=0 on sparc]
                  memcpy(&fragment_length, cur, sizeof(fragment_length));  cur+=sizeof(fragment_length);

                  size_t combined_length=total_length+fragment_length;
                  if(combined_length>body_length)
                        return false; // file curruption
                  // uchar needed to prevent propagating 0x80 bit to upper bytes
                  langs.append(total_length, (String::Language)(uchar)lang, fragment_length);
                  total_length=combined_length;
                  in_buf-=piece_length;
            }

            if(total_length!=body_length) // length(all language fragments) vs length(letters)
                  return false;
      }
      if(in_buf!=0) // some strange extra bytes
            return false;

      ASSERT_STRING_INVARIANT(*this);
      return true;
}

const char* String::Body::v() const {
      return CORD_to_const_char_star(body);
}
void String::Body::dump() const {
      CORD_dump(body);
}

const char* String::Languages::v() const {
      if(opt.is_not_just_lang)
            return CORD_to_const_char_star(langs);
      else
            return (const char*)&langs;
}
void String::Languages::dump() const {
      if(opt.is_not_just_lang)
            CORD_dump(langs);
      else
            puts((const char*)&langs);
}
const char* String::v() const {
      const uint LIMIT_VIEW=20;
      char* buf=(char*)malloc(MAX_STRING);
      const char*body_view=body.v();
      const char*langs_view=langs.v();
      snprintf(buf, MAX_STRING, 
            "%d:%.*s%s}   "
            "{%d:%s",
            langs.count(), LIMIT_VIEW, langs_view, strlen(langs_view)>LIMIT_VIEW?"...":"",
            strlen(body_view), body_view
      );

      return buf;
}
void String::dump() const {
      body.dump();
      langs.dump();
}
const String& String::trim(String::Trim_kind kind, const char* chars) const {
      if(!length())
            return *this;

      size_t substr_begin, substr_length;
      Body new_body=body.trim(kind, chars, &substr_begin, &substr_length);
      if(new_body==body) // we received unchanged pointer, do likewise
            return *this;
      // new_body differs from body, adjust langs along

      String& result=*new String;
      if(!new_body) // body.trim produced empty result
            return result;
      // body.trim produced nonempty result

      // first: their langs
      result.langs.append(result.body, langs, substr_begin, substr_length);
      // next: letters themselves
      result.body=new_body;

      ASSERT_STRING_INVARIANT(result);
      return result;
}

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